Friday, 28 September 2012

Alat Pengukur

Alat pengukur adalah alat yang digunakan untuk mengukur benda atau kejadian tersebut. Seluruh alat pengukur dapat terkena kesalahan peralatan yang bervariasi. Manusia telah
menggunakan banyak alat untuk melakukan pengukuran mereka. Sistem yang seragam bagi masa dan waktu, ukuran panjang, berat, isi padu cecair diasaskan dengan penggunaan bahagian badan dan benda-benda di sekeliling sebagai alat pengukur sejak dahulu. Tetapi sistem tersebut telah mendatangkan banyak kesan yang buruk seperti mendapat unit ukuran yang berbeza. Oleh itu, Sistem metrik piawai antarabangsa diadakan untuk mengadakan satu unit tunggal bagi sebarang kuantiti fizikal.

berikut adalah contoh-contoh alat pengukur pada zaman dahulu dan pada masa kini:

1. masa dan waktu

Jam matahari ialah sebuah peralatan yang menunjukkan waktu berdasarkan kedudukan matahari. Pembuatan jam matahari secara umumnya adalah untu memanfaatkan bayang yang menimpa permukaan rata yang ditandakan dengan jam-jam dalam satu hari. Jam matahari hanya boleh digunakan ketika ada matahari sahaja.Pada waktu malam tiada cahaya matahari dan disebabkan oleh itu, masa pada waktu malam tidak boleh dikira.Hal ini menyusahkan masyarakat pada masa dahulu untuk mengetahui masa pada waktu malam.

Jam tangan (Arloji) adalah penunjuk waktu yang dipakai di pergelangan tangan manusia. Jam tangan elektrik pertama kali diperkenalkan pada tahun 1957 di Lancaster, Pennsylvania, Amerika Syrikat oleh Hamilton Watch Company. Jam tangan dapat memberitahu masa yang tetap kepada kita walaupun dalam hari hujan atau pada waktu malam.

2. panjang

Beribu tahun yang lalu, manusia menggunakan anggota badan mereka seperti tangan, kaki atau jari untuk menyatakan mengenai ukuran panjang. Salah satu unit tertua pengukuran panjang digunakan dalam dunia kuno adalah 'hasta' yang panjang lengan dari ujung jari ke siku. Hasta itu bisa sangat bervariasi kerana saiz orang yang berbeza.

Dalam Sistem Satuan Antarabangsa (SI), unit asas panjang adalah meter dan sekarang ditakrifkan dalam istilah kelajuan cahaya. Para sentimeter dan kilometer, berasal dari meter, juga unit umum digunakan. Dalam unit US adat, sistem Inggeris atau Imperial unit, biasanya digunakan unit panjang adalah inci, kaki, pekarangan, dan batu.

3. berat

Pada zaman dahulu, manusia menggunakan jengkal, depa dan batu untuk mengukur berat sesuatu barangan. Binatang dan barang dagangan digunakan sebagai ukuran berat. Sukatan bagi timbangan berat yang selalu digunakan dahulu seperti tahil, kati, cupak, gantang dan mayam (untuk emas). selain itu, mereka juga mencipta alatan untuk mengukur berat seperti dacing dan pikul.

Kini, kita dapat banyak alat yang bolah digunakan untuk menimbang, seperti penimbang elektronik, timbangan berat atau neraca sebagai alat penimbang. Satuan timbangan atau massa yang umum digunakan ialah gram, ons, kilogram dan ton.

4. isipadu cecair

Masyarakat zaman tradisional adalah mengikut nama-nama bekas standard. Antaranya mereka menggunakan tong, hogsheads atau bekas lain unit wain yang berbeza.

Isipadu cecair merujuk kepada kapasiti cecair dalam sesuatu bekas. Kapasiti atau muatan boleh diukur dengan menggunakan unit piawai dalam millimeter (ml) dan liter (l) dalam sistem metrik.

Tuesday, 6 December 2011

number 1 to 20

nine planets




 Our solar system consists of an average star we call theSun, the planetsMercury, Venus,Earth, Mars,Jupiter, Saturn,Uranus, Neptune, andPluto.


The Sun is our closest star. It is a member of the Milky Way galaxy. The Sun is a yellow dwarf star, which means it is a medium size star. It is believed to be over 4 billion years old. The Sun spins slowly on its axis as it revolves around the galaxy.
The center, or core, of the Sun is very hot. A process called "nuclear fusion" takes place there. Nuclear fusion produces a lot of energy. Some of this energy travels out into space as heat and light. Some of it arrives at Earth! Streams of gas particles known as the solar wind also flow out from the Sun.
On the Sun's surface, we can see storms. We call these storms "sunspots" because they look like dark spots on the Sun's surface. The Sun also produces big explosions of energy called solar flares. These flares shoot fast moving particles off the Sun's surface. These particles can hit the Earth's atmosphere and cause a glow called an aurora.
The Sun


Mercury is the smallest planet in our solar system. Mercury is about the same size as our Moon. It is very close to the Sun. Mercury travels around the Sun faster than any other planet. That is how it got its name. It was named after Mercury, the swift messenger of the gods in ancient Roman mythology. Mercury can only be seen from Earth just before sunrise or just after sunset, but not in the middle of the night. That is because Mercury always appears near the Sun when viewed from Earth. Mercury has a very thin atmosphere. Humans would not be able to live there. The surface of Mercury has holes in it where objects such as meteorites and asteroids crashed into it.
 Mercury

Venus and Earth are almost the same size. Venus is the closest planet to Earth, but it does not have oceans or human life like Earth. Venus gets so hot during the day that it could melt a lead cannonball. The temperature rises to 484 degrees Celsius on the side facing the Sun. Venus has very thick, rapidly spinning clouds which cover its surface. These clouds hold heat in. That is why Venus gets so hot. These clouds also reflect sunlight. That is why Venus appears so bright to us here on Earth. There are constant thunderstorms in these clouds. Venus has several large inactive volcanoes. Much of the surface is covered by old lava flows from these volcanoes.

Venus is unusual because it rotates in a direction opposite that of all of the other planets. Venus spins very slowly as it orbits the Sun.
Venus


Earth is the third closest planet to the Sun. It has an atmosphere made up of many different gases, but mainly it is nitrogen and oxygen. The atmosphere gives us air to breathe. We live on the planet Earth.
The Earth orbits around the Sun. It takes one year to go around the Sun one complete time. The Earth also rotates, or spins, on its axis. It takes one day to spin around one complete time. The Earth's axis is not straight up and down, but tilted a little bit. This tilt is responsible for us having seasons. Otherwise, the temperature would be pretty much the same all year long.
Blue Marble

















The temperature on Mars can be very, very cold. On its warmest day, Mars can still be a very cold place. At the top and bottom of the planet are poles just like on Earth. During the Martian winter, ice caps can be seen at the poles.
Space probes have landed on Mars. These probes were sent on a fact-finding mission by the United States. They performed experiments on the Martian dirt and atmosphere. The dirt was found to contain clay which was rich in iron. The iron is what gives Mars its red color.
Mars has many craters which were formed by meteorites or asteroids hitting it. Mars also has some of the tallest volcanoes and some of the deepest valleys in our solar system. Mars has two moons, Phobos and Deimos which have unusual shapes. Scientists think these potato-shaped moons were once asteroids captured by Mars' gravitational pull .

Mars


Jupiter is a large gas planet whose clouds change colors daily. This planet is made mostly of hydrogen and helium gases. Jupiter gives off two times more heat than it gets from the Sun. It shines very brightly in the night sky for nine months of the year when it is closest to Earth. Huge areas of swirling gases can be found in Jupiter's atmosphere. The largest swirling area of gas is called the Great Red Spot. Scientists believe this is a large hurricane-like storm which has lasted for hundreds of years. Large bolts of lightning have also been seen in Jupiter's atmosphere. Pictures taken by space probes have shown thin rings around Jupiter. As of January 2011, Jupiter has 50 named moons. 13 more have been discovered but not given official status or names. One of Jupiter's moons, Io, has active volcanoes on it. Areas on Io that are near the volcanoes are very, very hot.
 Planet Jupiter

Saturn is a very large gas planet which spins very rapidly on its axis. It spins so fast that it flattens out the top and the bottom of the planet. The fast spin also causes Saturn to bulge at its equator. Saturn's atmosphere has winds which can blow at over 1800 kilometers per hour! The white spots on Saturn are believed to be powerful storms. Saturn is surrounded by over 1000 rings made of ice and dust. Some of the rings are very thin and some are very thick. The size of the particles in the rings range from pebble-size to house-size. Scientists believe that the particles came from the destruction of moons circling the planet. As comets and meteorites smashed the moons, Saturn's gravitational pull shaped the particles into rings. Saturn has at least 53 moons. Some of these moons orbit the planet within the rings, creating gaps in the rings.
 Saturn


Uranus tilts over so far on its axis that it rotates on its side. Because of this, its poles are sometimes pointed almost directly at the Sun. Uranus' atmosphere is made up of hydrogen, helium, and methane. The temperature in the upper atmosphere is very cold. The cold methane gas is what gives Uranus its blue-green color. The rapid rotation of Uranus causes winds up to 600 kilometers per hour to blow in its atmosphere. Uranus has eleven known rings which contain dark, boulder-sized particles. Uranus has 27 named moons. Some of these moons are less than 100 kilometers wide and black as coal.
Uranus


 Neptune and Uranus are very much alike. They are both large gas planets that look like big blue-green balls in the sky. Neptune has winds in its atmosphere which blow at over 2000 kilometers per hour! This planet has large, dark circles on its surface which astronomers believe to be storms. Neptune has two thick and two thin rings which surround it. Neptune also has thirteen known moons. Four of these moons orbit the planet within the rings. One of Neptune's moons, Triton, orbits the planet in a direction opposite to Neptune's other moons. Neptune is the farthest planet from the Sun.
Neptune



For many years, Pluto was thought of as the farthest known planet from the Sun. It has a very unusual orbit. Once every 248 Earth years, Pluto swings inside the orbit of Neptune. It stays there for twenty years. During those twenty years, Pluto is closer to the Sun than Neptune. While it is closer to the Sun, Pluto has an atmosphere. The methane and nitrogen frozen at the poles thaw out, rise, and temporarily form an atmosphere. As it moves toward its farthest point from the Sun, Pluto's atmosphere freezes and falls back to the ground. Since the year 2000, astronomers realized that Pluto was not like the other eight planets but very much like a new group of objects found in the outer solar system. In 2006, astronomers re-classified Pluto to be a dwarf planet.

Pluto has three moons. Pluto's largest moon, Charon, is half the size of Pluto. In 2005, astronomers observed two more moons of Pluto. The moons were named Nix and Hydra.
Pluto

Thursday, 13 October 2011

Lets Learn ABC

ABC song


Here are some thoughts on how to trace the letters with your students.
  • have the child identify the letter on the page
  • point to which is the capital letter and which is the small letter
  • ask what sound the letter makes
  • point to the picture on the page and stress the letter's sound in that word "AAAApple starts with A"
  • trace the upper case letters
  • take a break if you wish and color the picture
  • trace the lower case letters
  • try a few without tracing
  • hang the finished page in a place of honour (show how proud you are of their accomplishments). A sticker or stamp for a job well done is always nice!
Here's an alternate idea for who is starting to learn... this is our dayly routine (take a break and color the picture when the child gets tired)...
  • trace all the capital letters and lower case letters (doesn't take too long at this age)
  • Count the capital letters in the first line. Write the number beside. Count the capital letters in the second line. Write the number beside. Ask what the two added together are.
  • Estimate the small letters. Count them. How close was the child. Ask if their estimate was greater or less than what they counted.
  • Talk about the picture. Ask the child to think of a story about the picture. For children who've done this awhile, ask them what the BEGINNING of their story is, the MIDDLE and the END. Ask them if their story is fiction or non-fiction.
  • Ask your child to write the story on the back of the tracer page (sound out the words).
  • Write the words, spelling them properly. Point out where the child got letters right (They usually doesn't get the entire word correct, but almost always gets the first and last letter. Focus on the positive!) Point out punctuation.
  • Eat a chocolate chip cookie (you too... that was hard work!)

LETTER A          Alphabet Craft Activities
   Angie A craft

LETTER B          Alphabet Craft Activities
 Bobby B Craft

LETTER C          Alphabet Craft Activities
    Cathy C Craft

LETTER D          Alphabet Craft Activities
   Doctor D. Doggy Craft

LETTER E          Alphabet Craft Activities
    Elizabeth E. Craft

LETTER F          Alphabet Craft Activities

   Freddy F alphabuddies craft

LETTER G          Alphabet Craft Activities
Gloria G alphabuddies craft

LETTER H          Alphabet Craft Activities
   Harry H alphabuddies craft

LETTER I          Alphabet Craft Activities
   Ichardo I alphabuddies craft

LETTER J          Alphabet Craft Activities
   Jenny J alphabuddies craft

LETTER K          Alphabet Craft Activities
   King K alphabuddies craft

LETTER L           Alphabet Craft Activities
  Leopard L Craft

LETTER M          Alphabet Craft Activities
    Marshall M alphabuddies craft

LETTER N          Alphabet Craft Activities
   Nanny N alphabuddies craft

LETTER O          Alphabet Craft Activities
      Olga O Alphabuddies Craft

LETTER P          Alphabet Craft Activities
   Princess P alphabuddies craft

LETTER Q          Alphabet Craft  Activities
    Quarterback Q alphabuddies craft

LETTER R          Alphabet Craft Activities
  

LETTER S           Alphabet Craft Activities
   sailor s alphabuddy craft

LETTER T          Alphabet Craft Activities
    Tasha T alphabuddies craft

LETTER U          Alphabet Craft Activities
   Uncle U Alphabuddies craft

LETTER V          Alphabet Craft Activities
   Vicki V Valentine Alphabuddies craft

LETTER W          Alphabet Craft Activities
   wizard w alphabuddies craft

LETTER X           Alphabet Craft Activities
   Xavier X Alphabuddies craft

LETTER Y          Alphabet Craft Activities
   Yodeler Y Alphabuddies craft

LETTER Z          Alphabet Craft Activities
   Zelda Z Alphabuddy craft